Brain Metastasis Detection using Machine Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Authors and Affiliations
Accurate detection of brain metastasis (BM) is important for cancer patients. We aimed to systematically review the performance and quality of machine-learning-based BM detection on MRI in the relevant literature.
A systematic literature search was performed for relevant studies reported before April 27, 2020. We assessed the quality of the studies using modified tailored questionnaires of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) criteria and the Checklist for Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging. Pooled detectability was calculated using an inverse-variance weighting model.
A total of 12 studies were included, which showed a clear transition from classical machine learning (cML) to deep learning (DL) after 2018. The studies on DL used a larger sample size than those on cML. The cML and DL groups also differed in the composition of the data set, and technical details such as data augmentation. The pooled proportion of detectability of BM were 88.7% (95% CI, 84–93%) and 90.1% (95% CI, 84–95%) in the cML and DL groups, respectively. The false-positive rate per person was lower in the DL group than the cML group (10 vs. 135, P < 0.001). In the patient selection domain of QUADAS-2, three studies (25%) were designated as high risk due to non-consecutive enrollment and arbitrary exclusion of nodules.
A comparable detectability of BM with a low false-positive rate per person was found in the DL group compared to the cML group. Improvements are required in terms of quality and study design.