α-Synuclein Activates Microglia by Inducing the Expressions of Matrix Metalloproteinases and the Subsequent Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor-1
Authors and Affiliations
The mutation or overexpression of α-synuclein protein plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. In our preliminary experiments, we found that α-synuclein induced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (MMP-1, -3, -8, and -9) in rat primary cultured microglia. Thus, the current study was undertaken to determine the roles of MMPs in α-synuclein–induced microglial activation. The inhibition of MMP-3, -8, or -9 significantly reduced NO and reactive oxygen species levels and suppressed the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. Notably, MMP-8 inhibitor suppressed TNF-α production more efficaciously than MMP-3 or MMP-9 inhibitors. Inhibition of MMP-3 or -9 also suppressed the activities of MAPK, NF-κB, and AP-1. Previously, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been associated with the actions of MMPs, and thus, we further investigated the role of PAR-1 in α-synuclein–induced inflammatory reactions. A PAR-1–specific inhibitor and a PAR-1 antagonist significantly suppressed cytokine levels, and NO and reactive oxygen species production in α-synuclein–treated microglia. Subsequent PAR-1 cleavage assay revealed that MMP-3, -8, and -9, but not α-synuclein, cleaved the synthetic peptide containing conventional PAR-1 cleavage sites. These results suggest that MMPs secreted by α-synuclein–stimulated microglia activate PAR-1 and amplify microglial inflammatory signals in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Furthermore, our findings suggest that modulation of the activities of MMPs and/or PAR-1 may provide a new therapeutic strategy for Parkinson’s disease.